What does the #patriarchy have to do with the pelvic floor?
Faith in technology, commercial interests, and liberalisation of tort law had more to do with the introduction of CTG monitoring than research evidence did.
The history of maternity care is essentially the story of men trying to make sense of women as a mysterious “other” to men. This is true of the history of fetal heart rate monitoring too.
Most high-income countries require maternity clinicians who work with women during labour to attend regular courses on the use and interpretation of CTG monitoring. I’ve been to more than a few during my time – but I have never been to an education session where there was a specific focus on how to use and interpret IA.